General Information About the CSE Format

The CSE citation style is the official writing format for the Council of Scientific Editors. It is divided into three sub-styles. The three styles will be given an overview below. If you want more detailed information, consult the CSE Style Manual.

1st Sub-Style: Citation Sequence

  • End references are ordered by the way they appear within the text. They are not listed alphabetically.
  • Use numbers to refer to end references.

Example

In-text reference

Liberated German art was hauled away to secret locations to be distributed among American civilians1.

End reference

Simpson A, Burns M, Lovejoy J, Gumble B, Christian S, Powers R, Simpson L, Flanders T, Simpson B, Burns L, et al. The Flying Hellfish: WWII liberators of art from Nazi Germany. Cypr J. 1989;9(1):49-58.

Format for Common Types of References

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;Volume(issue):page numbers.

Journals

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;Volume(issue):page numbers.

Books

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date. Extent. Notes.

Dissertations and Theses

Author(s). Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. [Place of publication]: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

2nd Sub-Style: Name Year

  • In the reference list, order listings alphabetically.
  • For in-text citations, show the author and the year.

Example

Due to uneasiness on the part of male spectators, the foot-long hotdog has been removed from the concession menu (Flanders 2002).

For Multiple Sources Published by the Same Author in Different Years

  • Show the author and the year chronologically.

Example

Flanders' studies of concession offerings (Flanders 1970, 1975) have shown that...

For Multiple Authors

If there are two authors, show both of the names in the in-text reference. Make a distinction between them by putting an “and” between the names.

Example

...and the most recent work on the Flying Hellfish (Burns and Simpson 2001) is…

  • If you have more than two authors, present the first author, with “et al.” and the year after it.

Example

... but later studies (Carlson et al. 2004) determined that…

An Author as an Organization or Company

  • List the first letter of each part of the name or an abbreviation, and the year.

Example

The landmark report on nuclear power (SNPP 1979) was…

Format for Common Types of References

Journals

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):page numbers.

Books

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Extent. Notes.

Dissertations and Theses

Author(s). Date. Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

3rd Sub-Style: Citation Name

  • In the reference list, listings are shown alphabetically. Each reference is also assigned a number, which shows in which order the references are listed.

Example

In-text reference

Ziff found58...

Amandopolis considered spatial...1...

According to Simpson's research32...

Burns sampled2...

End reference

1. Amandopolis...

2. Burns...

32. Simpsoon...

58. Ziff…

Format for Common Types of References

Journals

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;Volume(issue):page numbers.

Books

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date. Extent. Notes.

Dissertations and Theses

Author(s). Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. [Place of publication]: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.